Hachi-Hachi (八八, ‘88’) is the preëminent Hanafuda gambling game. In many old English sources it is considered synonymous with ‘hanafuda’ or ‘hana-awase’ and isn’t given a more specific name.

The name derives from the objective of the game; the standard version of the game is for three active players, and there are 264 total card points available, so the goal for each player is to obtain at least 264 ÷ 3 = 88 points.

Despite being the most important Hanafuda gambling game, it is also one the most difficult. The play of the cards is the same as in other Hanafuda games, but the procedures of betting and payment combine to increase the complexity. There are also multiple sets of yaku, and specialized equipment that was commonly used with the game.

Because of this, I present a simplified base game first, and each subsequent section introduces another extension of the rules until the full version of the game is attained.This approach was inspired by Z.D. Smith’s “A Curriculum of Vira”. As a game that was often played in secret for money, there is no one ‘true’ set of rules, and there are also many optional variations and regional rules differences.