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Ceki or CherkiThe spelling Cherki seems to be more common in Malaysia and Singapore. It can also be written Tjeki in older Indonesian orthographies, or چکي in Jawi script. The word apparently comes from Amoy (Hokkien) Chinese chít ki (一枝 )a[p. 48], “one card”, perhaps referring to the pick-one/play-one nature of the most common Ceki games. Gambling Games of Malaya gives the name as 織箕 (chitki) but I have not found this elsewhere; perhaps it is a phonetic back-formation. or Koa cards are widely used in Indonesia and parts of Malaysia and Singapore. They originally derive from Chinese 3-suited money cards (particularly the “Water Margin” type), and over time and distance the imagery on the cards developed into smaller, simpler, and more abstract forms, while retaining the original deck structure.

Ceki games are also played amongst members of “reterritorialized” Indonesian Chinese communities within mainland China.c[p. 555]

Countries where Ceki cards are used.

Malaysia & Singapore

The use of Cherki cards in Malaysia & Singapore was introduced by Peranakan (Baba–Nyonya) communities. Much of the terminology and card naming derives from Hokkien, and the cards used are closer to their ancestral forms than those used in Indonesia.

An exhibition game using Cherki cards being played in Penang, Malaysia.

© Shutterstock.com/Fiqah Anugerah Dah Besa: 1293448237

In the past the game was played by all levels of society; records of the palace expenditure of the Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim of Kedah (1864–1943) from 1896–99 indicate that he enjoyed gambling with Ceki.d[p. 58]

More recent accounts from Malaysia & Singapore indicate that the game was almost exclusively played by women, and in modern times it has nearly died out. The Babas reported that by the 1980s it was only possible to get cards in Melaka. However, there are ongoing efforts to preserve and repopularize the game.

Indonesia

In Indonesia, Ceki games are still popular, especially in Sumatra, Java, and Bali, all of which have historically had large Chinese influence.

During the colonial era, cards were manufactured in Europe by Dutch companies and exported to Indonesia. (See the manufacturers section below.)

Javanese card players, by Jean Demmeni (1866–1939). 🅮

In Bali the game is widely played, and has “a large if not fanatical following”,f[p. 170] despite gambling being illegal. Cards are readily available at many convenience stores.

Men in traditional dress seated around a cloth mat upon which are placed ceki cards and bundles of money.

Balinese men playing a gambling game.

© 2016 Adam Cohn 🅭 🅯 🄏 ⊜

The game is particularly popular amongst the Minangkabau people of West Sumatra, as the Dutch card-making company Handelsvereniging Harmsen Verweij & Dunlop N.V. had a factoryThis building was later to become the Hotel Ambacang, which was destroyed in the 2009 Sumatran earthquakes. The company also had offices in Java & Sulawesi (previously known as Celebes). in the city of Padang. In the Minang language they are called Koa (or Kowah). The Minangkabau go so far as to say “kalau ga bisa main KOA berarti bukan orang Minang”: “if you can’t play Koa, it’s means you’re not a Minang”.g

The game has also been carried to Suriname by Javanese emigrants. This image shows it being played at the time of the visit of Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard in 1955.

1955 Nationaal Archief 🅮

The Deck

The cards run 1–9 in three suits, and there are three ‘honour cards’, giving 30 different cards. Each deck, or kepala (literally ‘head’), contains two copies of each card, giving 60 total. However, most Ceki games require multiple kepala to play, often two sets (120 cards).

The three suits are called:h[p. 119]

Myriads (Numbers)

ban (from Hokkien bān 萬/万 ‘myriad’), or cina (‘Chinese’)
in Java, wong (ꦮꦺꦴꦁ) ‘people’i

Strings
manek (‘bead’), sok (from Hokkien ‘rope’), or tiau (from Hokkien ‘long/thin object’)
Coins

hitam (‘black’), batik, piah (from Hokkien ‘round thing’), or tong (from Hokkien ‘barrel’)

Cards from a modern Balinese Ceki deck.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Coins
Strings
Myriads

Card Names

For each card in the table below I show in order (left-to-right)

  1. a card from a 19th-century deck collected in The manners and customs of the Chinese of the straits settlements,
  2. a card from a different 19th-century deck from Young (1886, p. 300) (as reproduced in Javaanse Kaartspelen: bidrage tot de beschrijving van land en volk),
  3. a card from a deck produced by Harmsen Verweij & Dunlop (after 1933), a Dutch company,
  4. a 1940s deck collected in Javaanse Kaartspelen: bidrage tot de beschrijving van land en volk,
  5. and then a modern card from a deck purchased in Bali in 2019 (clearly derived from #3).

Modern Malaysian & Singaporean decks (of which I have no samplesYet! Can you help with this? Contact me!) are closer in style to the #1 deck.

Each card in the deck has its own name as listed in the table below. In Malaysia/Singapore these are based on the Hokkien names of the cards — a combination of suit and rank — but as we move in a south-easterly direction along the Malay Archipelago (the table below is listed roughly in this order), the names diverge further and further from this original source, and most cards have nicknames that are based upon their appearance rather than their numeric value.

The translations in the table are mostly from the SEAlang dictionaries; any mistakes are my own.According to some sources, the word “cina” referring to a Chinese person is now considered a potentially derogatory term. For example, the Indonesian government no longer uses it in official communications.

⚠️ The table is very wide and scrolls horizontally.

Malaysia/Singapore Sumatra Java Bali Lombok Borneo Sulawesi Maluku Timor
Cards

Padang
(2013)m

[unstated]
(1876)n

Pekalongan
(1941)l

Magelang
(1941)l

Yogyakarta
(1941)l

Surakarta
(1941)l

[Surabaya?]
(1914)i

Banyuwangi
(1941)l

[Badung?]
(2012)o

Badung
(1941)l

Gianyar
(1941)l

Klungkung
(1941)l

Karangasem
(1941)l

Buleleng
(1941)l

Singaraja
(1941)l

Lombok
(2016)p

Lombok
(1941)l

Banjarmasin
(1941)l

Manado
(1876)q

Ambon
(1876)q

Timor
(1876)q

Honour & Rank 1 yu or yeo, from Hokkien io , ‘ace’ hiu/iyu ‘shark’, looks like a fin

Old Thousand

yu lau chian, from Hokkien 老千 ‘old thousand’
or yu pinding
danau rezeki, hiu/babak
[chapter?] shark
ꦫꦗ
raja
king
iyo ratu
king ace
iyo ratu
king ace
iyo ratu
king ace
iyo ratu
king ace
besar
large
besar
large
raja
king
raja
king
(oong) raja (oong) raja kobar
burning
kobar (oong besar KBW) kobar
burning
kobar
burning
kobar
burning
abang/raja basar laucan, lokjan meirah lokjan meirah besar

White Flower

yu kuching
cat ace
hiu kuciang
cat shark
ꦏꦸꦕꦶꦁ
kucing
cat
kucing
cat
kucing
cat
kucing
cat
(iyo) kucing
cat ace

curut
rat
kucing
cat
kucing
cat
cakra
chakra
cakra
chakra
cakra
chakra
cakra
chakra
cepe cakra
chakra
cakra
chakra
cpé
?
rerepé kucing kukis parampuwan
woman
kucing

Red Flower

yu nyonya
(娘仔?) ace
hiu merah
red shark

or penci
[a hat?]
ꦏꦼꦚ꧀ꦕꦶ
kêñci
kenci kenci kenci kinci, pinci, iyo kenci cinci
[unknown]
pinci kenci
[key/lock?]
kunci konci konci konci kinci (kenci KBW) kenci kinci kènci pinci kapala meirah kapala meirah prik

1 Coins

yu kasut
slipper ace (looks like a Nyonya slipper)
hiu kasuik
[unknown] shark
ꦏꦱꦸꦠ꧀
kasut
slipper
kasut
slipper
kasut
slipper
kasut
slipper
(iyo) kasut
slipper
kesut
[var: kasut?]
kisut
wrinkled
likas
reel
likas
reel
likas
reel
likas
reel
likas
reel
likas
reel
likas
reel
likas
reel
likas
reel
kasut/butuh [women]; bedor [men] tikar
plaited mat
tikar
plaited mat
kaso
[Saccharum spontaneum? mats are woven from this]

1 Strings

yu panjang or yu burung
long or bird ace
hiu panjang
long shark
ꦧꦼꦢꦺꦴꦂ
bêdor
(iyo) bedor (iyo) bedor (iyo) bedor (iyo) bedor sotur
[probably round-tipped lance]
bedhul
pulled out, uprooted

sodor
round-tipped lance
lojor
long
lojor
long
lojor
long
lojor
long
lojor
long
slodor
[probably round-tipped lance]
selodor
[probably round-tipped lance]
selodor
[probably round-tipped lance]
(lojor?) panjang
long
panjang
long
panjang
long
panjang
long

1 Myriads

yu hue sio
from Hokkien ‘monk’ 和尚
hiu bungo
flower shark
ꦥꦼꦠꦶꦏ꧀
pêtik
beset
peeled [bald?]
gundhul
bald

pletik
spark
(iyo) gundhul
bald

petik
[spark?]
(iyo) gundhul
bald

petik
[spark?]
p’té
[unknown]
putri
woman or princess
cina
China
cina cina cina cina cina cina cina cina nyonyah cina cina cina
Rank 2 ji (Hokkien jī) bengkok ‘crooked’

2 Coins

ji hitam or ji bulat
black or round two
bengkok itam/wajik
black/diamond crooked
ꦥ꧀ꦭꦺꦴꦩ꧀ꦥꦺꦴꦁ
plompong
gaping mouth
pelong
wide open
plompong
gaping mouth
loro plompong
gaping two

plontho
prostitute
loro plompong
gaping two

plontho
prostitute
dhimpil tolu
chipped [fifth week of Javanese calendar?]
komplong
to gape
bug dua
[two dried betel nuts?]
jebug dua jebug dua

ponggang
hole
jabog dua ponggang
hole
gobog dua (omplong KBW) gobog dua jebug dua gobog dua tambur dua
two drums

palumpung
[?]
duwa mata duwa mata batik

2 Strings

ji burung
bird two
bengkok gadang
big crooked
ꦢꦺꦁꦏꦺꦏ꧀
déngkék
dengkek dengkek (loro) dengkek (loro) dengkek cekok
neck-hollow
dengkek dengkek
having a bent back
sengkek sengkek dengkek dengkek dengkek (dengkel, dengkol) dengkek dengkek dengkek téngkong bèngkok bongkok bongko

2 Myriads

ji ban
bengkok aluih
genteel crooked
ꦝꦶꦩ꧀ꦥꦶꦭ꧀ꦕꦶꦤ
dhimpil cina
chipped Chinese
munthil
small tight knot, Javanese hairstyle
dhimpil
chipped
loro cina
China two

loro dhimpil
chipped two
loro cina
China two

loro dhimpil
chipped two
dhimpil wong
chipped person
wong bendhol
person with a bump
pelik
[?]
plik plik celik plik kolo (gobog, ketonglang KBW) kolo kolo kolo miring
angled
miring
angled
miring
angled
miring
angled
Rank 3 sa (Hokkien saⁿ) jarum ‘needle’

3 Coins

sa batik
batik three
jarum wajik/itam
diamond/black needle
ꦮꦗꦶꦏ꧀
wajik
diamond
wajik
diamond
plenthi

pithi
(telu) plenthi

tambur cilik
small drum

telu pithi
(telu) plenthi

tambur cilik
small drum

telu pithi
cerut
[constricted?]

jarum
needle
gebles/gobog cilik/curut bug telu
[three dried betel nuts?]
bug telu jbug telu jabog telu bug telu gobog telu gobog telu jebug telu (gobog telu?) tambur tiga
three drums
tiga mata tiga mata kukis

3 Strings

sa udang
shrimp three
jarum gadang
big needle
ꦒꦹꦤꦸꦁ
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
(telu) gunung
mountain (three)
(telu) gunung
mountain (three)
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
(jarum) gunung
(needle) mountain
udang
shrimp
udang
shrimp
udang
shrimp

3 Myriads

sa ban jarum aluih
genteel needle
ꦗꦫꦸꦩ꧀
jarum
needle
telu cina, cingik telu cina, jarum singit, jarum telu cina, jarum, gudhul jarum wong
needle person
wong cungit, wong curut caling
caling cus cus cues jarum jarum jarum jarum jarum (alus) jarum jarum jarum
Rank 4 si (Hokkien sì) suduang ‘spoon’(?)

4 Coins

si hitam
black four
suduang itam/wajik
black/diamond spoon
ꦠꦩ꧀ꦧꦸꦂ
tambur
drum
tambur
drum
tambur
drum
tambur gedhé
big drum
papat tambur
four drum

tambur gedhé
big drum
gobok
coin
gebles/gobod gedhé belah bug gede (jebug) belah jabog piag besar belah (gobog besar) belah besar gobog besar tambur (satu) as tambur ekor

4 Strings

si putih
white four
pinggang
waist
ꦕꦮꦁ
cawang
forked
gapet cawang
forked

pat pedhot
interrupted four
(pat) cawang
forked (four)
(pat) cawang
forked (four)
cawang
forked
cawang
forked
sangkap
[unknown]
sangkap sangkap (bebed) sangkap sangkap cawang cawang cawang cawang pinggang putus putus pinggang pinggang

4 Myriads

si ban suduang putiah
white spoon
ꦕꦶꦤ
cina
China/Chinese
bodong
protruding (navel)
pat cina
Chinese four
bodong
protruding (navel)
papat cina
Chinese four

kondhé, nyonyah
sundhul
to reach or touch up high
wong sundhul
person reach or touch up high
mendut
steamed rice flour balls
gendot kbong kobong kobong kobong (kebong) kobong celek celek pajung kondei kondei kondei
Rank 5 go (Hokkien gō͘) babi ‘pig’ (nostrils?)

5 Coins

go pending
pending five
babi pusek
navel pig
ꦧꦧꦶꦏꦟ꧀ꦛꦺꦴꦁ (modern ꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦺꦴꦁ)
babi kaṇthong (kanthong)
pig bag
kanthong
bag
kanthong
bag
(lima) kanthong
bag (five)

lumpang
mortar
(lima) kanthong
bag (five)

lumpang
mortar
cupa
[unknown]
pau


wudel
navel

bodong
protruding (navel)
prau
boat
pau pau pau[?] pau[?] pau pau perahu pau klonéng prahu pusat
navel
pusat
navel

5 Strings

go burung
bird five
babi gadang
big pig
ꦧꦧꦶꦭꦶꦤ꧀ꦠꦿꦶꦏ꧀
babi lintrik
lima kleja lima lintrik, kecuk tholo lima linktrik, pecuk babi lintrik
pig [unknown]
cucuk babi mategede
[unknown]
sumpul palu ? gogos gogos gogos gogoas gogos pantat têroes têroes kio putih

5 Myriads

go ban babi aluih
genteel pig
ꦧꦧꦶꦕꦶꦤ
babi cina
gombal lima cina babi lima cina, babi babi wong
pig person
wong babi bongkar
[unload: forklift?]
bongkar bongkar pangpang canggah polak polak polak polak babi babi (pai tuwa) babi (pai tuwa) babi (pai tuwa)
Rank 6 lak (Hokkien la̍k) kapik ‘grill’

6 Coins

lak hitam
black six
kapik anam
grilled six
ꦏꦼꦫꦺꦴꦏ꧀ꦒ꦳ꦥꦶꦠ꧀
kêrok ghapit
curry-comb tongs
kerok
curry-comb
kerok
curry-comb
(nem) kerok (nem) kerok mendhung
dark rain cloud
kerok
curry-comb
nyem
[unknown]
pis nem pis nem pis nem pis nem tima nem (pipis nem) tima nem (pipis nem) pis nem
six coins
tima nem (pipis nem) kerok anam mata anam kaladi tarasi

6 Strings

lak putih
white six
kapik manih
grilled sweet
ꦏ꧀ꦭꦺꦗꦒ꦳ꦥꦶꦠ꧀
kléja ghapit
kléja kléja (nem) kléja, bagus (nem) kléja, bagus candra
[moon/month?]
tanem
[high register: to plant?]
mer
[unknown]
mer klenténg
Chinese temple
pengka mer mer mer mer mer bambu
bamboo
bêlah buluh
wide stripes

tarabei
bambu
bamboo
bambu
bamboo

6 Myriads

lak ban kapik aluih
grilled genteel
ꦕꦶꦤꦒ꦳ꦥꦶꦠ꧀
cina ghapit
Chinese tongs
nem cina nem cina siyong bombyok nem cina gabit
[probably tongs]
wong gapit
tongs person
klenténg
Chinese temple
leteng burat burat buat megat (gapit) megat megat megat rumah
building [temple?]
lakban lakban lakban
Rank 7 jit (Hokkien chhit) sisiak ‘scales’

7 Coins

jit hitam or jit daun
black or leaf seven
sisiak bendera
flag scales
ꦫꦺꦪꦧ꧀ꦭꦪꦂ
réyab layar
sweep hair, sail
geper sember, pitu kera sember (pitu) kera, keder layar
sail
layar
sail
paku
[fern?]
pis tu pis tu pipis pitu bendera bendera (layar) bendera (layar) bendera
[flag?]
bendéra (bendéra layar) layar bandéra bulu ayam bandéra

7 Strings

jit burung
bird seven
sisiak gadang
big scales
ꦫꦺꦪꦧ꧀ꦭꦶꦤ꧀ꦠꦿꦶꦏ꧀
réyab lintrik
lintrik pitu kecuk pitu lintrik, pecuk pitu pitu lintrik, pecuk pitu réyab lintrik
[unknown]
cucuk kereg ringying
[unknown]
merenying rinying rinying curing
an instrument or bird-like decoration
curing
an instrument or bird-like decoration
curing
an instrument or bird-like decoration
curing
an instrument or bird-like decoration
curing
an instrument or bird-like decoration
bulu galéma gohu josef

7 Myriads

jit ban sisiak aluih
genteel scales
ꦫꦺꦪꦧ꧀ꦕꦶꦤ
réyab cina
pitu cina pitu cina pitu cina pitu cina reab wong
[unknown]
wong kereg ringgit
serrated
ringgit
serrated
ringgit
serrated
ringgit
serrated
ringgit
serrated
ringgit (bagus)
(fine) serrated
ringgit
serrated
ringgit ringgit sisir
comb
ringgit sisir
comb
sisir
comb
Rank 8 puek (Hokkien poeh) pacah ‘broken’

8 Coins

puek kerang
cockle eight
pacah lapan
broken eight
ꦊꦏꦺꦴꦏ꧀ꦥꦶꦕꦶꦱ꧀
lêkok picis
wolu kerok picis, wolu kerok (wolu) picis, (wolu) wang (wolu) picis, (wolu) wang lekok pecis
dented [peci or coin?]
picis, buthak, buthak tai sekutus
[adj:eight?]
pis tus pis tus pipis kutus pis tus tima kutus tima kutus pis ulu
eight coins
(tima kutus?) dalapan
eight
delapan mata delapan kaladi delapan

8 Strings

puek menak
noble eight
pacah manih
broken sweet
ꦊꦏꦺꦴꦏ꧀ꦭꦶꦤ꧀ꦠꦿꦶꦏ꧀
lêkok lintrik
wolu manis wolu lintrik, manis manis wolu lintrik/pecuk/manis lekok lintrik
dented [unknown]
cucuk buthak/manis ulu
eight
madek ulu ulu manis
sweet
manis manis manis manis manis manis manis cinta

8 Myriads

puek ban pacah aluih
broken genteel
ꦊꦏꦺꦴꦏ꧀ꦕꦶꦤ
lêkok cina
budheg
[deaf/stupid?]
wolu cina budheg
[deaf/stupid?]
wolu cina lekok wong
dented person
wong buthak manak
[to be born?]
manak manak celek lepok klepok kelepok kelepok kelepok pecah dukun picah kapala picah
Rank 9 kau (Hokkien káu) tali ‘rope’

9 Coins

kau hitam
black nine
tali bulek
round rope
ꦒꦁꦥꦶꦕꦶꦱ꧀
gang picis
gap money
glindhing
wheels
glindhing
wheels
(sanga) glindhing, plolo

picis gedhé
large coins
(sanga) glindhing, plolo

picis gedhé
large coins
pecis
[peci or coin?]
picis
money

glindhing
wheels
sanga
nine
sanga
nine
sanga
nine
pis sanga
money nine
sanga
nine
trompong
Balinese gamelan
terompong
[probably Balinese gamelan]
gada
a mace
gada bulat


galéndéng
roda rupiah rupiah

9 Strings

kau merah
red nine
tali merah
red rope
ꦒꦁꦭꦶꦤ꧀ꦠꦿꦶꦏ꧀
gang lintrik
sanga bang sanga bang obor sanga ban/lintrik, obor gang abang
red gap
cucuk abang/besar besar
large
gesar besar lintrik besar téja
shining/red
téja
shining/red
téja
shining/red
téja
shining/red
téja
shining/red
léntri, lantri kacang
[bean/clitoris?]
meirah kacang kio meirah

9 Myriads

kau ban tali aluih
genteel rope
ꦒꦁꦕꦶꦤ
gang cina
keyang keyang keyang sanga cina, kayang, kéyang gang
gap
wong cucuk kao
[unknown]
kau kau kau jering
[upright?]
jering jering jering jering turus gargaji (baduri) gargaji (baduri) suwanggi

Games

There are many games played with Ceki cards.s[p. 124] For most of them, I do not know of any other sets of rules recorded online.

Fishing games (where players capture cards from a central pool):

  • Cholek Tiga (‘draw three’), a Malaysian game for two or three playerst[p. 214]h[p. 125]

Trick-taking games:

  • Kertu Lima is a Javan game with unusual card rankings

Draw & discard games (like Mahjong):

  • Balik Satu (‘turn one’), a Malaysian game with no fixed number of playerst[p. 214]h[p. 122]
  • Balik Lima Belas h[p. 127]/Balek Lima Belairt[p. 124]/Bukak Lima Blas Lehe[p. 167] (‘turn fifteen’), an alternate method of scoring Balik Satu
  • Gonggong, a Javan game for four or six playersl[p. 94–7]
  • Tantanan, a fast-playing Javan game for four playersl[p. 98]

Other games from Malaysia/Singapore, for which I have no rules, are:

  • Pak Tui, a solitaire gamet[p. 215]
  • Choke/Chote (Ramay), a game for more than four playerst
  • Choke/Chote Kiong, a four-player gamet[p. 214]

Manufacturers & Brands

A bird perched on a branch.

The logo for Handelsvereeniging Harmsen Verweij & Dunlop N.V..

(Extinct) European manufacturers included:

  • Camoin, a French company that was based in Marseille
  • Handelsvereeniging Harmsen Verweij & Dunlop N.V., a Dutch company that had offices in Java, Sumatra, and Celebes (Sulawesi)u
  • Mesmaekers Frères, a Belgian company based in Turnhout whose cards were imported to Java by Brandon Mesritz & Co.v

Modern Indonesian brands include:

  • Ceki Hiu (Old Thousand has a colour image of a shark)
  • Ceki Kalong Mas (bat symbol, Old Thousand inscribed 𫑟林?)
  • Ceki Leak, a mythological creature
  • Gunting Baja, Bali
  • Gunting Rumput
  • Gar’da Kencana
  • Kabuki
  • Kapal Ferry (Old Thousand has a colour image of a ship)
  • Pura Dewa, Bali
A black and white advertisement with an image of two tigers fighting.

Newspaper advertisement in Sin Po, 20th March 1922, for Dua Macan (‘two tigers’) brand ceki cards (kartoe tjeki), being sold by Handel Mij. (also publishers of the newspaper). 🅮

Old Indonesian brands included:

  • Bajing (‘squirrel’)l[p. 12]
  • Pajungl[p. 12]
  • 999l[p. 12]
  • Leo (‘lion’)l[p. 12]
  • Warak (‘rhino’)l[p. 12]
  • Kodok (‘frog’)l[p. 12]
  • Kunci (‘lock/key’)l[p. 12]
  • Dua Macan (‘two tigers’)

Credits

Special thanks to Aditya for double-checking my Javanese transcriptions.

References

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  2. (). Gambling Games of Malaya. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: The Caxton Press.

  3. (). ‘’. Modern Asian Studies vol. 44 (3): pages 547–566.

  4. (). ‘’. Kajian Malaysia vol. 33 (Supp. 2): pages 53–74.

  5. (). . Singapore: Times Books International. ISBN: 9971-65-058-4.

  6. (). ‘’. In Security, Democracy, and Society in Bali, edited by Andrew Vandenberg and Nazrina Zuryani: pages 155–176. Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN: 978-981-15-5848-1.

  7. (). ‘’. Cindua Dingin.

  8. (). ‘Chiki Cards and Three Chiki Games’. Journal of the International Playing-Card Society vol. 32 (3): pages 119–128.

  9. (). ‘’. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie vol. 46 (1): pages 45–48.

  10. (). . Singapore: Mission Press.

  11. (). ‘’. Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde vol. 31: pages 269–302.

  12. (). Javaanse Kaartspelen: bidrage tot de beschrijving van land en volk. Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: A. C. Nix & Co.

  13. (). ‘’. Lai tau mah,..!!!.

  14. (). ‘’. Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde vol. 23: pages 512–516.

  15. (). ‘’. Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia: Universitas Udayana.

  16. Anonymous (). ‘’. Lai tau mah,..!!!.

  17. (). . Batavia: W. Bruining.

  18. (). Gateway to Old School Games. Singapore: Asiapac Books. ISBN: 978-981-229-949-9.

  19. (). A Nyonya Mosaic: Memoirs of a Paranakan Childhood. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish. ISBN: 978-981-4435-52-9.

  20. (). . Singapore: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN: 978-1-4629-1300-8.

  21. and (). ‘’. International Review of Humanities Studies vol. 3 (2): pages 274–286.

  22. (). ‘’. World of Playing Cards.