โ—ฆ last updated:

Ceki or CherkiThe spelling Cherki seems to be more common in Malaysia and Singapore. It can also be written Tjeki in older Indonesian orthographies or ฺ†ฺฉูŠ in Jawi script. The word apparently comes from Amoy (Hokkien) Chinese chรญt ki (ไธ€ๆž),A[p. 48] โ€œone cardโ€, perhaps referring to the pick-one/play-one nature of the most common Ceki games. A similar origin is suggested by Amaro (1993), who gives jฤซ ki โ€˜two cardsโ€™ (ไบŒๆž). โจGambling Games of Malayaโฉ gives the name as ็น”็ฎ• โ€˜weave basketsโ€™ (chitki) but I have not found this elsewhere; perhaps it is a phonetic back-formation. or Koa cards are widely used in Indonesia and parts of Malaysia and Singapore. They were originally derived from Chinese 3-suited money cards (particularly the โ€œWater Marginโ€ type), and over time and distance the imagery on the cards developed into smaller, simpler, and more abstract forms, while retaining the original deck structure.

Ceki games are also played amongst members of โ€œreterritorializedโ€ Indonesian Chinese communities within mainland China.D[p. 555]

Countries where Ceki cards are used.

ยฉ George Pollard ๐Ÿ…ญ๐Ÿ…ฏ๐Ÿ„๐Ÿ„Ž

Malaysia & Singapore

The use of Cherki cards in Malaysia & Singapore was introduced by Peranakan (Babaโ€“Nyonya) communities. Much of the terminology and card naming derives from Hokkien, and the cards used are closer to their ancestral forms than those used in Indonesia.

An exhibition game using Cherki cards being played in Penang, Malaysia.

ยฉ : 1293448237

In the past the game was played by all levels of society; records of the palace expenditure of the Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim of Kedah (1864โ€“1943) from 1896โ€“99 indicate that he enjoyed gambling with Ceki.E[p. 58]

More recent accounts from Malaysia & Singapore indicate that the game was almost exclusively played by women, and in modern times it has nearly died out. โจThe Babasโฉ reported that by the 1980s it was only possible to get cards in Melaka. However, there are ongoing efforts to preserve and repopularize the game.

Amongst Kristang (or Christรฃo) communities in Malacca, the cards were known as chaqui or chiqui.B[p. 34]

Indonesia

In Indonesia, Ceki games are still popular, especially in Sumatra, Java, and Bali, all of which have historically had a large Chinese influence.

During the colonial era, cards were manufactured in Europe by Dutch companies and exported to Indonesia. (See the manufacturers section below.)

Javanese card players, by Jean Demmeni (1866โ€“1939). There are three players playing a fishing game, perhaps Pรจi (there are probably too many cards in the centre for it to be Thothit). ๐Ÿ…ฎ

In Bali, the game is widely played and has โ€œa large if not fanatical followingโ€,G[p. 170] despite gambling being illegal. Cards are readily available at many convenience stores.

Men in traditional dress seated around a cloth mat upon which are placed ceki cards and bundles of money.Men in traditional dress seated around a cloth mat upon which are placed ceki cards and bundles of money.

Balinese men playing a gambling game.

ยฉ 2016 ๐Ÿ…ญ๐Ÿ…ฏ๐Ÿ„โŠœ

The game is particularly popular amongst the Minangkabau people of West Sumatra, as the Dutch card-making company Handelsvereniging Harmsen Verweij & Dunlop N.V. had a factoryThis building was later to become the Hotel Ambacang, which was destroyed in the 2009 Sumatran earthquakes. The company also had offices in Java & Sulawesi (previously known as Celebes). in the city of Padang. In the Minang language, they are called Koa (or Kowah).This appears to have been ูƒูˆุง in old Malay orthography.H[p. 542] The Minangkabau go so far as to say โ€œkalau ga bisa main KOA berarti bukan orang Minangโ€: โ€œif you canโ€™t play Koa, itโ€™s means youโ€™re not a Minangโ€.I

In Buginese and Makassarese, both spoken in South Sulawesi, the game is also called kowa (แจ€แจšแจ“ in Lontara script).J[p. 63]K[p. 46]

The game has also been carried to Suriname by Javanese emigrants. This image shows it being played at the time of the visit of Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard in 1955.

The game being played here seems to be one that has โ€œroosterโ€ (jago) bets.

1955 ๐Ÿ…ฎ

The Deck

The cards run 1โ€“9 in three suits, and there are three โ€˜honour cardsโ€™, giving 30 different cards. Each deck, or kepala (literally โ€˜headโ€™, Javanese ๊ฆ๊ฆฅ๊ฆญ kapala), contains two copies of each card, giving 60 total. In Banyuwangi it is called a ๊ฆซ๊ฆš๊ง€๊ฆ•๊ฆ๊ง€ rancak โ€˜piece of woodโ€™ or โ€˜set of instrumentsโ€™.L[p. 74] Many Ceki games require multiple kepala to play, often two sets (giving 120 cards).

The three suits have various names.M[p. 119] โ€˜Coinsโ€™, โ€˜stringsโ€™, and โ€˜myriadsโ€™ are the terms I use for consistency across different types of money-suited cards.

Coins

hitam (โ€˜blackโ€™), batik, piah (from Hokkien ้ค… โ€˜round thingโ€™), or tong (from Hokkien ็ญ’ โ€˜barrelโ€™)

Strings

manek (โ€˜beadโ€™), sok (from Hokkien ็ดข โ€˜ropeโ€™), or tiau (from Hokkien ๆข โ€˜long/thin objectโ€™)
in Java, lintrik (๊ฆญ๊ฆถ๊ฆค๊ง€๊ฆ ๊ฆฟ๊ฆถ๊ฆ โ€˜rowsโ€™?)N

Myriads (Numbers)

ban (from Hokkien bฤn ่ฌ/ไธ‡ โ€˜myriadโ€™), or cina (โ€˜Chineseโ€™)
in Java, wong (๊ฆฎ๊ฆบ๊ฆด๊ฆ โ€˜peopleโ€™)N

Cards from a modern Balinese Ceki deck.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Coins
Strings
Myriads

Card Names

For each card in the table below I show (in left-to-right order):

  1. a card from a 19th-century deck collected in โจThe manners and customs of the Chinese of the straits settlementsโฉ,
  2. a card from a different 19th-century deck from Young (1886, p. 300) (as reproduced in โจJavaanse Kaartspelen: bijdrage tot de beschrijving van land en volkโฉ),
  3. a card from a deck produced by Harmsen Verweij & Dunlop (after 1933), a Dutch company,
  4. a 1940s deck collected in โจJavaanse Kaartspelen: bijdrage tot de beschrijving van land en volkโฉ,
  5. and then a modern card from a deck purchased in Bali in 2019 (clearly derived from #3).

Modern Malaysian & Singaporean decks (of which I have no samplesYet! Can you help with this? Contact me!) are closer in style to the #1 deck.

Each card in the deck has its own name as listed in the table below. The translations in the table are mostly from the SEAlang dictionaries; any mistakes are my own.According to some sources, the word โ€œcinaโ€ referring to a Chinese person is now considered a potentially derogatory term. For example, the Indonesian government no longer uses it in official communications, since the term was dropped from official usage by presidential decree in 2014.Q In Malaysia/Singapore the names are based on the Hokkien names of the cardsโ€‰โ€”โ€‰a combination of suit and rankโ€‰โ€”โ€‰but as we move in a south-easterly direction along the Malay Archipelago (the table below is listed roughly in this order), the names diverge further and further from this original source, and most cards have nicknames that are based upon their appearance rather than their numeric value.

โš ๏ธ The table is very wide and might scroll horizontally.

Malaysia/Singapore Sumatra Java Bali Lombok Borneo Sulawesi Maluku Timor
Cards General Malacca (Kristang)
(1972)B

Padang
(2013)T

[unstated]
(1876)U

Pekalongan
(1941)L

Magelang
(1941)L

Yogyakarta
(1941)L

Surakarta
(1941)L

[Surabaya?]
(1914)N

Banyuwangi
(1941)L

[Badung?]
(2012)R

Badung
(1941)L

Gianyar
(1941)L

Klungkung
(1941)L

Karangasem
(1941)L

Buleleng
(1941)L

Singaraja
(1941)L

Lombok
(2016)S

Lombok
(1941)L

Banjarmasin
(1941)L

Manado
(1876)V

Ambon
(1876)V

Timor
(1876)V

Honour & Rank 1 yu or yeo, from Hokkien io ๅนบ, โ€˜aceโ€™ โ€” hiu/iyu โ€˜sharkโ€™, looks like a fin

Old Thousand

yu lau chian, from Hokkien ่€ๅƒ โ€˜old thousandโ€™
or yu pinding
yo sekarat, yo mitadi
one half
danau rezeki, hiu/babak
[chapter?] shark
๊ฆซ๊ฆ—
raja
king
iyo ratu
king ace
iyo ratu
king ace
iyo ratu
king ace
iyo ratu
king ace
besar
large
besar
large
raja
king
raja
king
(oong) raja (oong) raja kobar
burning
kobar (oong besar KBW) kobar
burning
kobar
burning
kobar
burning
abang/raja basar laucan, lokjan meirah lokjan meirah besar

White Flower

yu kuching
cat ace
yo feme
one woman
hiu kuciang
cat shark
๊ฆ๊ฆธ๊ฆ•๊ฆถ๊ฆ
kucing
cat
kucing
cat
kucing
cat
kucing
cat
(iyo) kucing
cat ace

curut
rat
kucing
cat
kucing
cat
cakra
chakra
cakra
chakra
cakra
chakra
cakra
chakra
cepe cakra
chakra
cakra
chakra
cpรฉ
?
rerepรฉ kucing kukis parampuwan
woman
kucing

Red Flower

yu nyonya
(ๅจ˜ไป”?) ace
yo fogu
one fire
hiu merah
red shark

or penci
[a hat?]
๊ฆ๊ฆผ๊ฆš๊ง€๊ฆ•๊ฆถ
kรชรฑci
kenci kenci kenci kinci, pinci, iyo kenci cinci
[unknown]
pinci kenci
[key/lock?]
kunci konci konci konci kinci (kenci KBW) kenci kinci kรจnci pinci kapala meirah kapala meirah prik

1 Coins

yu kasut
slipper ace (looks like a Nyonya slipper)
sapatu
shoe
hiu kasuik
[unknown] shark
๊ฆ๊ฆฑ๊ฆธ๊ฆ ๊ง€
kasut
slipper
kasut
slipper
kasut
slipper
kasut
slipper
(iyo) kasut
slipper
kesut
[var: kasut?]
kisut
wrinkled
likas
reel
likas
reel
likas
reel
likas
reel
likas
reel
likas
reel
likas
reel
likas
reel
likas
reel
kasut/butuh [women]; bedor [men] tikar
plaited mat
tikar
plaited mat
kaso
[Saccharum spontaneum? mats are woven from this]

1 Strings

yu panjang or yu burung
long or bird ace
pau
club
hiu panjang
long shark
๊ฆง๊ฆผ๊ฆข๊ฆบ๊ฆด๊ฆ‚
bรชdor
(iyo) bedor (iyo) bedor (iyo) bedor (iyo) bedor sotur
[probably round-tipped lance]
bedhul
pulled out, uprooted

sodor
round-tipped lance
lojor
long
lojor
long
lojor
long
lojor
long
lojor
long
slodor
[probably round-tipped lance]
selodor
[probably round-tipped lance]
selodor
[probably round-tipped lance]
(lojor?) panjang
long
panjang
long
panjang
long
panjang
long

1 Myriads

yu hue sio
from Hokkien โ€˜monkโ€™ ๅ’Œๅฐš
China/ladrรกn
China/thief
hiu bungo
flower shark
๊ฆฅ๊ฆผ๊ฆ ๊ฆถ๊ฆ๊ง€
pรชtik
beset
peeled [bald?]
gundhul
bald

pletik
spark
(iyo) gundhul
bald

petik
[spark?]
(iyo) gundhul
bald

petik
[spark?]
pโ€™tรฉ
[unknown]
putri
woman or princess
cina
China
cina cina cina cina cina cina cina cina nyonyah cina cina cina
Rank 2 ji (Hokkien jฤซ) โ€” bengkok โ€˜crookedโ€™

2 Coins

ji hitam or ji bulat
black or round two
bola
ball
bengkok itam/wajik
black/diamond crooked
๊ฆฅ๊ง€๊ฆญ๊ฆบ๊ฆด๊ฆฉ๊ง€๊ฆฅ๊ฆบ๊ฆด๊ฆ
plompong
gaping mouth
pelong
wide open
plompong
gaping mouth
loro plompong
gaping two

plontho
prostitute
loro plompong
gaping two

plontho
prostitute
dhimpil tolu
chipped [fifth week of Javanese calendar?]
komplong
to gape
bug dua
[two dried betel nuts?]
jebug dua jebug dua

ponggang
hole
jabog dua ponggang
hole
gobog dua (omplong KBW) gobog dua jebug dua gobog dua tambur dua
two drums

palumpung
[?]
duwa mata duwa mata batik

2 Strings

ji burung
bird two
beechu
worm
bengkok gadang
big crooked
๊ฆข๊ฆบ๊ฆ๊ฆ๊ฆบ๊ฆ๊ง€
dรฉngkรฉk
dengkek dengkek (loro) dengkek (loro) dengkek cekok
neck-hollow
dengkek dengkek
having a bent back
sengkek sengkek dengkek dengkek dengkek (dengkel, dengkol) dengkek dengkek dengkek tรฉngkong bรจngkok bongkok bongko

2 Myriads

ji ban
noiba
bride
bengkok aluih
genteel crooked
๊ฆ๊ฆถ๊ฆฉ๊ง€๊ฆฅ๊ฆถ๊ฆญ๊ง€๊ฆ•๊ฆถ๊ฆค
dhimpil cina
chipped Chinese
munthil
small tight knot, Javanese hairstyle
dhimpil
chipped
loro cina
China two

loro dhimpil
chipped two
loro cina
China two

loro dhimpil
chipped two
dhimpil wong
chipped person
wong bendhol
person with a bump
pelik
[?]
plik plik celik plik kolo (gobog, ketonglang KBW) kolo kolo kolo miring
angled
miring
angled
miring
angled
miring
angled
Rank 3 sa (Hokkien saโฟ) โ€” jarum โ€˜needleโ€™

3 Coins

sa batik
batik three
crossan
heart, or brooch of Cabaia-wood
jarum wajik/itam
diamond/black needle
๊ฆฎ๊ฆ—๊ฆถ๊ฆ๊ง€
wajik
diamond
wajik
diamond
plenthi

pithi
(telu) plenthi

tambur cilik
small drum

telu pithi
(telu) plenthi

tambur cilik
small drum

telu pithi
cerut
[constricted?]

jarum
needle
gebles/gobog cilik/curut bug telu
[three dried betel nuts?]
bug telu jbug telu jabog telu bug telu gobog telu gobog telu jebug telu (gobog telu?) tambur tiga
three drums
tiga mata tiga mata kukis

3 Strings

sa udang
shrimp three
kambrang
shrimp
jarum gadang
big needle
๊ฆ’๊ฆน๊ฆค๊ฆธ๊ฆ
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
(telu) gunung
mountain (three)
(telu) gunung
mountain (three)
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
gunung
mountain
(jarum) gunung
(needle) mountain
udang
shrimp
udang
shrimp
udang
shrimp

3 Myriads

sa ban chuchล
prick (Malay cucok)

agula
needle
jarum aluih
genteel needle
๊ฆ—๊ฆซ๊ฆธ๊ฆฉ๊ง€
jarum
needle
telu cina, cingik telu cina, jarum singit, jarum telu cina, jarum, gudhul jarum wong
needle person
wong cungit, wong curut caling
caling cus cus cues jarum jarum jarum jarum jarum (alus) jarum jarum jarum
Rank 4 si (Hokkien sรฌ) โ€” suduang โ€˜spoonโ€™(?)

4 Coins

si hitam
black four
manuco/rรฃ
frog
suduang itam/wajik
black/diamond spoon
๊ฆ ๊ฆฉ๊ง€๊ฆง๊ฆธ๊ฆ‚
tambur
drum
tambur
drum
tambur
drum
tambur gedhรฉ
big drum
papat tambur
four drum

tambur gedhรฉ
big drum
gobok
coin
gebles/gobod gedhรฉ belah bug gede (jebug) belah jabog piag besar belah (gobog besar) belah besar gobog besar tambur (satu) as tambur ekor

4 Strings

si putih
white four
basio
plate
pinggang
waist
๊ฆ•๊ฆฎ๊ฆ
cawang
forked
gapet cawang
forked

pat pedhot
interrupted four
(pat) cawang
forked (four)
(pat) cawang
forked (four)
cawang
forked
cawang
forked
sangkap
[unknown]
sangkap sangkap (bebed) sangkap sangkap cawang cawang cawang cawang pinggang putus putus pinggang pinggang

4 Myriads

si ban ryiami/curto
short
suduang putiah
white spoon
๊ฆ•๊ฆถ๊ฆค
cina
China/Chinese
bodong
protruding (navel)
pat cina
Chinese four
bodong
protruding (navel)
papat cina
Chinese four

kondhรฉ, nyonyah
sundhul
to reach or touch up high
wong sundhul
person reach or touch up high
mendut
steamed rice flour balls
gendot kbong kobong kobong kobong (kebong) kobong celek celek pajung kondei kondei kondei
Rank 5 go (Hokkien gลอ˜) โ€” babi โ€˜pigโ€™ (looks like nostrils)

5 Coins

go pending
pending five
panding
sarong-fastener
babi pusek
navel pig
๊ฆง๊ฆง๊ฆถ๊ฆ๊ฆŸ๊ง€๊ฆ›๊ฆบ๊ฆด๊ฆ (modern ๊ฆ๊ฆค๊ง€๊ฆ›๊ฆบ๊ฆด๊ฆ)
babi kaแน‡thong (kanthong)
pig bag
kanthong
bag
kanthong
bag
(lima) kanthong
bag (five)

lumpang
mortar
(lima) kanthong
bag (five)

lumpang
mortar
cupa
[unknown]
pau


wudel
navel

bodong
protruding (navel)
prau
boat
pau pau pau[?] pau[?] pau pau perahu pau klonรฉng prahu pusat
navel
pusat
navel

5 Strings

go burung
bird five
baker
cow
babi gadang
big pig
๊ฆง๊ฆง๊ฆถ๊ฆญ๊ฆถ๊ฆค๊ง€๊ฆ ๊ฆฟ๊ฆถ๊ฆ๊ง€
babi lintrik
lima kleja lima lintrik, kecuk tholo lima linktrik, pecuk babi lintrik
pig [unknown]
cucuk babi mategede
[unknown]
sumpul palu ? gogos gogos gogos gogoas gogos pantat tรชroes tรชroes kio putih

5 Myriads

go ban governu/goberno
governor

europeano
european
babi aluih
genteel pig
๊ฆง๊ฆง๊ฆถ๊ฆ•๊ฆถ๊ฆค
babi cina
pig China
gombal
rag
lima cina
China five
babi
pig
lima cina, babi
China five, pig
babi wong
pig person
wong babi
person pig
bongkar
[unload: forklift?]
bongkar bongkar pangpang canggah polak polak polak polak babi babi (pai tuwa) babi (pai tuwa) babi (pai tuwa)
Rank 6 lak (Hokkien laฬk) โ€” kapik โ€˜grillโ€™

6 Coins

lak hitam
black six
gordo
fat
kapik anam
grilled six
๊ฆ๊ฆผ๊ฆซ๊ฆบ๊ฆด๊ฆ๊ง€๊ฆ’๊ฆณ๊ฆฅ๊ฆถ๊ฆ ๊ง€
kรชrok ghapit
curry-comb tongs
kerok
curry-comb
kerok
curry-comb
(nem) kerok (nem) kerok mendhung
dark rain cloud
kerok
curry-comb
nyem
[pun on six?]
pis nem
six coins
pis nem
six coins
pis nem
six coins
pis nem
six coins
tima nem (pipis nem)
six coins
tima nem (pipis nem)
six coins
pis nem
six coins
tima nem (pipis nem)
six coins
kerok anam mata anam kaladi tarasi

6 Strings

lak putih
white six
gala
bamboo
kapik manih
grilled sweet
๊ฆ๊ง€๊ฆญ๊ฆบ๊ฆ—๊ฆ’๊ฆณ๊ฆฅ๊ฆถ๊ฆ ๊ง€
klรฉja ghapit
klรฉja klรฉja (nem) klรฉja, bagus (nem) klรฉja, bagus candra
[moon/month?]
tanem
[high register: to plant?]
mer
[unknown]
mer klentรฉng
Chinese temple
pengka mer mer mer mer mer bambu
bamboo
bรชlah buluh
wide stripes

tarabei
bambu
bamboo
bambu
bamboo

6 Myriads

lak ban osu
bone
kapik aluih
grilled genteel
๊ฆ•๊ฆถ๊ฆค๊ฆ’๊ฆณ๊ฆฅ๊ฆถ๊ฆ ๊ง€
cina ghapit
Chinese tongs
nem cina
China six
nem cina
China six
siyong bombyok nem cina
China six
gabit
[probably tongs]
wong gapit
tongs person
klentรฉng
Chinese temple
leteng burat
makeup
burat
makeup
buat
[makeup?]
megat (gapit) megat megat megat rumah
building [temple?]
lakban lakban lakban
Rank 7 jit (Hokkien chhit) โ€” sisiak โ€˜scalesโ€™

7 Coins

jit hitam or jit daun
black or leaf seven
lรณia
flag
sisiak bendera
flag scales
๊ฆซ๊ฆบ๊ฆช๊ฆง๊ง€๊ฆญ๊ฆช๊ฆ‚
rรฉyab layar
sweep hair, sail
geper sember, pitu kera sember (pitu) kera, keder layar
sail
layar
sail
paku
[fern?]
pis tu
pis tu
pipis pitu
seven coins
bendera bendera (layar) bendera (layar) bendera
[flag?]
bendรฉra (bendรฉra layar) layar bandรฉra bulu ayam bandรฉra

7 Strings

jit burung
bird seven
galinha
chicken
sisiak gadang
big scales
๊ฆซ๊ฆบ๊ฆช๊ฆง๊ง€๊ฆญ๊ฆถ๊ฆค๊ง€๊ฆ ๊ฆฟ๊ฆถ๊ฆ๊ง€
rรฉyab lintrik
lintrik pitu kecuk pitu lintrik, pecuk pitu pitu lintrik, pecuk pitu rรฉyab lintrik
[unknown]
cucuk kereg ringying
[unknown]
merenying rinying rinying curing
an instrument or bird-like decoration
curing
an instrument or bird-like decoration
curing
an instrument or bird-like decoration
curing
an instrument or bird-like decoration
curing
an instrument or bird-like decoration
bulu galรฉma gohu josef

7 Myriads

jit ban malayu
malay
sisiak aluih
genteel scales
๊ฆซ๊ฆบ๊ฆช๊ฆง๊ง€๊ฆ•๊ฆถ๊ฆค
rรฉyab cina
pitu cina
China seven
pitu cina
China seven
pitu cina
China seven
pitu cina
China seven
reab wong
[unknown]
wong kereg ringgit
serrated
ringgit
serrated
ringgit
serrated
ringgit
serrated
ringgit
serrated
ringgit (bagus)
(fine) serrated
ringgit
serrated
ringgit ringgit sisir
comb
ringgit sisir
comb
sisir
comb
Rank 8 puek (Hokkien poeh) โ€” pacah โ€˜brokenโ€™

8 Coins

puek kerang
cockle eight
brau
ship
pacah lapan
broken eight
๊ฆŠ๊ฆ๊ฆบ๊ฆด๊ฆ๊ง€๊ฆฅ๊ฆถ๊ฆ•๊ฆถ๊ฆฑ๊ง€
lรชkok picis
wolu kerok picis, wolu kerok (wolu) picis, (wolu) wang (wolu) picis, (wolu) wang lekok pecis
dented [peci or coin?]
picis, buthak, buthak tai sekutus
[adj:eight?]
pis tus
eight coins
pis tus
eight coins
pipis kutus
eight coins
pis tus
eight coins
tima kutus tima kutus pis ulu
eight coins
(tima kutus?) dalapan
eight
delapan mata delapan kaladi delapan

8 Strings

puek menak
noble eight
baji/dosi
sweet
pacah manih
broken sweet
๊ฆŠ๊ฆ๊ฆบ๊ฆด๊ฆ๊ง€๊ฆญ๊ฆถ๊ฆค๊ง€๊ฆ ๊ฆฟ๊ฆถ๊ฆ๊ง€
lรชkok lintrik
wolu manis wolu lintrik, manis manis wolu lintrik/pecuk/manis lekok lintrik
dented [unknown]
cucuk buthak/manis ulu
eight
madek ulu ulu manis
sweet
manis manis manis manis manis manis manis cinta

8 Myriads

puek ban belu
old
pacah aluih
broken genteel
๊ฆŠ๊ฆ๊ฆบ๊ฆด๊ฆ๊ง€๊ฆ•๊ฆถ๊ฆค
lรชkok cina
budheg
[deaf/stupid?]
wolu cina
China eight
budheg
[deaf/stupid?]
wolu cina
China eight
lekok wong
dented person
wong buthak manak
[to be born?]
manak manak celek lepok klepok kelepok kelepok kelepok pecah dukun picah kapala picah
Rank 9 kau (Hokkien kรกu) โ€” tali โ€˜ropeโ€™

9 Coins

kau hitam
black nine
Mลru
Moor/Indian
tali bulek
round rope
๊ฆ’๊ฆ๊ฆฅ๊ฆถ๊ฆ•๊ฆถ๊ฆฑ๊ง€
gang picis
gap money
glindhing
wheels
glindhing
wheels
(sanga) glindhing, plolo

picis gedhรฉ
large coins
(sanga) glindhing, plolo

picis gedhรฉ
large coins
pecis
[peci or coin?]
picis
money

glindhing
wheels
sanga
nine
sanga
nine
sanga
nine
pis sanga
nine coins
sanga
nine
trompong
Balinese gamelan
terompong
[probably Balinese gamelan]
gada
a mace
gada bulat


galรฉndรฉng
roda rupiah rupiah

9 Strings

kau merah
red nine
botol/bottle/whisky
bottle
tali merah
red rope
๊ฆ’๊ฆ๊ฆญ๊ฆถ๊ฆค๊ง€๊ฆ ๊ฆฟ๊ฆถ๊ฆ๊ง€
gang lintrik
sanga bang
red nine
sanga bang
red nine
obor
torch
sanga ban/lintrik
rows or red nine

obor
torch
gang abang
red gap
cucuk abang/besar besar
large
gesar besar lintrik besar tรฉja
shining/red
tรฉja
shining/red
tรฉja
shining/red
tรฉja
shining/red
tรฉja
shining/red
lรฉntri, lantri kacang
[bean/clitoris?]
meirah kacang kio meirah

9 Myriads

kau ban Mary, Mรฉrri, Maria, Kau Mary
Mary
tali aluih
genteel rope
๊ฆ’๊ฆ๊ฆ•๊ฆถ๊ฆค
gang cina
keyang keyang keyang sanga cina, kayang, kรฉyang gang
gap
wong cucuk kao
[unknown]
kau kau kau jering
[upright?]
jering jering jering jering turus gargaji (baduri) gargaji (baduri) suwanggi

Games

There are many games played with Ceki cards.X[p. 124] For most of them, I do not know of any other sets of rules recorded online.

Fishing games (where players capture cards from a central pool):

  • Cholek Tiga (โ€˜draw threeโ€™), a Malaysian game for two or three playersY[p. 214]M[p. 125]
  • Pรจi, a Javanese game for three players where the goal is to collect specific scoring combinationsL[p. 58โ€“70]
  • Thothit, a Javanese game for three players where the goal is to capture identical pairsL[p. 71โ€“2]
  • Enthit, a similar Javanese game for three players where the goal is to capture identical quadrupletsL[p. 74]
  • Thothit Kuna, an older and slower version of the gameL[p. 74]
  • Thothit Yogyakarta, a luck-based Javanese game for three playersL[p. 73]
  • Thit-Thit-Dulit, a luck-based Javanese game for two playersL[p. 73]

Simple gambling games:

Trick-taking games:

  • Kartu Lima is a Javan game with unusual card rankings

Draw & discard games (like Mahjong):

  • Balik Satu (โ€˜turn oneโ€™), a Malaysian game with no fixed number of playersY[p. 214]M[p. 122]
  • Balik Lima BelasM[p. 127]/Balek Lima BelairY[p. 124]/Bukak Lima Blas LehF[p. 167] (โ€˜turn fifteenโ€™), an alternate method of scoring Balik Satu
  • Chot/Chote/Choke/Kiong, a four-player gameY[p. 214]M[p. 127]F[p. 167]
  • Gonggong, a Javan game for four or six playersL[p. 94โ€“7]
  • Tantanan, a fast-playing Javan game for four playersL[p. 98]
  • Pong a Malaysian version of a Thai game, played by four people, also played with Mahjong tiles

Other games from Malaysia/Singapore, for which I have no rules, are:

  • Pak Tui, a solitaire gameY[p. 215]
  • Choke/Chote (Ramay), a game for more than four playersY[p. 214]
  • Tongkeng, a game for two peopleY[p. 215]

Manufacturers & Brands

A bird perched on a branch.A bird perched on a branch.

The logo for Handelsvereeniging Harmsen Verweij & Dunlop N.V..

ยฉ George Pollard ๐Ÿ…ญ๐Ÿ…ฏ๐Ÿ„๐Ÿ„Ž

(Extinct) European manufacturers included:

  • Camoin, a French company that was based in Marseille
  • Handelsvereeniging Harmsen Verweij & Dunlop N.V., a Dutch company that had offices in Java, Sumatra, and Celebes (Sulawesi)Z
  • Mesmaekers Frรจres, a Belgian company based in Turnhout whose cards were imported to Java by Brandon Mesritz & Co.AA Their brands included:
    • Dua Macan (โ€˜two tigersโ€™), trademark registered 15th October 1887.AB[p. 32] This brand was also used for other types of cards, like domino cards.
A black and white advertisement with an image of two tigers fighting.A black and white advertisement with an image of two tigers fighting.

Newspaper advertisement in Sin Po, 20th March 1922, for Mesmaekers Frรจresโ€™ Dua Macan (โ€˜two tigersโ€™) brand ceki cards (kartoe tjeki), being sold by Handel Mij. (also publishers of the newspaper). ๐Ÿ…ฎ

  • Cartamundi, a Belgian company based in Turnhout, and now the largest manufacturer of playing cards in the world. Their brands included:
    • Three Goats Brand (also labelled ่กŒ้€šๅ—?), trademark registered 26 July 1972.AB[p. 47] Decks containing Ceki cards seem to have been in a red packet and labelled โ€˜Aโ€™; green and โ€˜Bโ€™ were four-colour cards.

Old Indonesian brands included:

  • Bajing (โ€˜squirrelโ€™)L[p. 12]
  • PajungL[p. 12]
  • 999L[p. 12]
  • Leo (โ€˜lionโ€™)L[p. 12]
  • Warak (โ€˜rhinoโ€™)L[p. 12]
  • Kodok (โ€˜frogโ€™)L[p. 12]
  • Kunci (โ€˜lock/keyโ€™)L[p. 12]

Modern Indonesian brands include:

  • $ Dollar
  • Ceki Jitu/Cap Udang, โ€˜shrimp brandโ€™; trademark registered 8th September, 2009
  • Ceki Hiu, โ€˜shark cekiโ€™ (Old Thousand has a colour image of a shark)
  • Ceki Kalong Mas (bat symbol, Old Thousand inscribed ๐ซ‘Ÿๆž—?)
  • Ceki Leak, a mythological creature; trademark registered 27th August, 2013
  • Ceki Sinar Rejeki, โ€˜lucky rayโ€™?
  • Flipper Brand
  • Gold Fish
  • Gunting Baja, from Bali
  • Gunting Rumput
  • Garโ€™da Kencana
  • Jangkar Kapal, โ€˜ship anchorโ€™
  • Kabuki
  • Kalajengking, โ€˜scorpionโ€™
  • Kapal Ferry (Old Thousand has a colour image of a ship)
  • Liberty/777 (with an image of the Statue of Liberty)
  • Lintrik Cap Semar
  • Pura Dewa, from Bali
  • Tjap Klabang (cap klabang), โ€˜centipede brandโ€™; trademark registered 28th October, 2015

The only current Malaysian manufacturer I know of is Yong Guan Heng & Co., who sell Cherki cards under the Single Lion brand (ๅ–ฎ็…ๅ˜œ).

Credits

Special thanks to Aditya for double-checking my Javanese transcriptions.

References

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  2. (). โ€˜โจChaqui and Partui: Two Popular Card Games of the โ€˜Christรฃosโ€™ of Malaccaโฉโ€™. โจJournal of the International Playing-Card Societyโฉ vol.ย 22 (2), : pages 34โ€“40.

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