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Here I collect some terms instead of reëxplaining them in many articles, as well as providing a place for discussion or expansion.


A group of cards in Kànhǔ is called an ‘eye’ ( Cantonese: ngaan⁵).A[p. 156] In other games combinations are called called ‘ox’ ( Cantonese: ngau⁴).B[p. 88] I wonder if both terms are derived by modifying ‘pair’ ( Cantonese: ngau⁵)?C[p. 323]

In Mahjong the ‘eye’ is the pair that is required to make a complete hand.

Also murnivall, mourneval, mournaval, mourniuall, mornyfle; from French mornifle ‘slap’. An old English term for a set of four cards of the same rank.
Also perryall, priol, prioll; from “pair royal”. An old English term for a set of three cards of the same rank.

This is a term used in Mahjong to refer to a set (of three). It comes from the Chinese (Mandarin: pèng, Cantonese: pung³, Hokkien: pōng or phòng); see the game Pèng Hé, in which the term may have originated.

This word is now used in English mahjong games. It also seems to appear in Javanese as pang (see Pèi). Perhaps it could also be the origin of the Thai ไพ่ผ่อง pai phong (see Pai Tong)?

Payment made to the owner of a gambling establishment, as a fixed fee per game or as a percentage of winnings.
  • This is possibly from the Chinese (Hokkien: tông), a round thing, a barrel or can (in which to place the payments). As a verb it means to place or put in.
  • In Javan usage the tong was the glass in which the contributions to the gaming house (called ꦕꦸꦕꦸꦏ꧀ cucuk or ꦕꦸꦏ꧀ cuk) are placed.D[p. 4]
  • In Thai it is ต๋ง (tong).
  • In Khmer it is តុង (tong).
  • Also used in Australia amongst Aboriginal groups who play games such as Kuns.E[p. 42]F[p. 668]G[p. 137–8]


  1. (). ‘⁨⁩’. The Brooklyn Museum Quarterly vol. 11 (4), : pages 153–168.

  2. (). ⁨Gambling Games of Malaya⁩. The Caxton Press⁩: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  3. (). ⁨⁩ [英華分韻撮要]. Canton.

  4. (). ⁨Javaanse Kaartspelen: bijdrage tot de beschrijving van land en volk⁩ [Javanese Card Games]; Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen⁩ volume 75. A. C. Nix & Co.⁩: Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.

  5. and (). ‘⁨A Note on Kuns: An Aboriginal Card Game from the North-West of Western Australia⁩’. Department of Aboriginal Affairs’ Newsletter vol. 11: pages 41–49.

  6. and (). ‘⁨⁩’. The Medical Journal of Australia vol. 149 (12), : pages 668–672.

  7. (). ⁨⁩ [archived]. PhD thesis, The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University⁩: Haymarket, NSW, Australia.